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Journal = Tropical Aquatic and Soil Pollution
Found 13 items.
Open Access
Level and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Miri River, Malaysia
by Amit Kumar Maharjan, Dick Rong En Wong, Rubiyatno Rubiyatno

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 1180 views
The heavy metals pollution in the water resource has become a serious and hazardous environmental problem all over the world because of non-biodegradability, emanating from multiple sources, easy accumulation, and biological toxicity. This research was carried out to study the level and distribution of heavy metals at different sampling locations (upstream, midstream, and downstream), at different depths (0.5 m and 1.5 m from surface water level), and during low tide and high tide conditions in the Miri River of Miri City in Malaysia. The river water samples were collected and analyzed for Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Concentration of Ca was found to be the highest in the Miri River, followed by Mg and Fe, and with traces of Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Increment in the concentration of heavy metals, such as Cu, Mg, and Ni, was observed while flowing from upstream to downstream of the Miri River. Concentration of heavy metals, such as Ca, Mg, Cu, and Zn, were clearly lower at 1.5 m depth than at 0.5 m depth. High tides in the river decreased the concentration of heavy metals, such as Ca, Cu, Mn, and Ni, than during low tides. From this research, it gets clear that using the Miri River water for domestic and recreational purposes, washing, and fishing is detrimental to human health and the environment. Full text


Open Access
Water Quality Assessment of Roof-collected Rainwater in Miri, Malaysia
by Joel Joseph Hughes Frichot, Rubiyatno, Gaurav Talukdar

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 839 views
Rainwater harvesting systems are becoming more acceptable as an alternative method to harvest water sources for both potable and non-potable uses. While the method has proven to be very simplistic and cost-effective, the collected rainwater source remains untreated and can pose serious health concerns if not used properly. This study focused on the physicochemical and heavy metal parameters of roof-collected rainwater in Miri, Sarawak. Individual sites were chosen throughout Miri, Sarawak for representative samples. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy was used for the analysis of heavy metal concentrations. Heavy metal analysis included manganese, zinc, iron, copper, and cadmium. pH, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate, and fluoride were among the physicochemical parameters examined. Seasonal comparison indicated the majority of the higher concentration levels occurred during the wet season. The overall mean concentration for the physicochemical parameters indicated CLASS I usage, with the exception of BOD5, which was CLASS III usage. The overall mean concentration for metals analyzed indicated a CLASS I usage threshold with the exception of copper, which had concentrations well above the 0.02mg/L threshold for all sites. Thus, copper was considered one of the major contaminants for this study. Moreover, the types of storage tanks also showcased key findings. Open top storage tanks are more vulnerable to contamination than closed storage tanks. Metal storage tanks offer higher rainwater temperatures in comparison to other types of storage tanks. Full text


Open Access
Downstream Effects of Industrial Effluents Discharge on Some Physicochemical Parameters and Water Quality Index of River Rido, Kaduna State, Nigeria
by Ali Williams Butu, Chukwudi Nnaemeka Emeribe, Ijeoma Obianuju Muoka, Oluchi Favour Emeribe, Emmanuel Temiotan Ogbomida

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 614 views
The effects of industrial effluent discharge on the water quality of River Rido in Kaduna South, Kaduna State, were examined. These include the Northern Noodles discharge point, the Kaduna Refinery discharge point, and points downstream of the River Rido. An interval of 100m between sampling points was established to achieve an even representation of sampling points. The physico-chemical parameters investigated include pH, free dissolved carbon dioxide, alkalinity, hardness, sodium, electrical conductivity, Turbidity, total suspended solids, total phosphate, nitrate, sulfate, and dissolved oxygen. Mean levels of turbidity Total suspended solids and total phosphate at effluent discharge points, as well as in most areas downstream of the study area, were generally above permissible limits for drinking water. Statistical differences were observed in the concentration levels of investigated parameters between the control point and effluent discharge points, as well as between the control point and areas downstream of the study area. However, concentration levels were observed to be similar between discharge points and areas downstream of the study area, an indication of contamination downstream by effluent discharge upstream. Notwithstanding, the water quality index of physico-chemical parameters at both effluent discharge points and areas downstream of River Rido shows that the quality of the river ranged from good to excellent at effluent discharge points and areas downstream of River Rido, respectively. This might be attributed to the effect of dilution from rainfall. It is therefore recommended that wastewater effluent from the refinery and northern noodles be properly treated before discharged into the study area. Full text


Open Access
Sediment Suspension Distribution Models in East Canal Flood Estuary Waters, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia
by Alyssa Hutasuhut, Aris Ismanto, Baskoro Rochaddi, Lilik Maslukah, Rikha Widiaratih

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 400 views
The study was carried out in Semarang City, Central Java, Indonesia, along the East Canal Flood River. There are several community activities that produce some pollutants and total suspended solids (TSS) was one of the elements is. The river transports these pollutants to the estuary. These coastal regions provide exceptional life support for creatures. This study attempts to determine the concentration value of suspended solids, its suitability to the pollution threshold value, and the distribution pattern of the sediment suspension based on hydrodynamic parameters, using the Delft3D program. This study estimated the distribution of sediment suspensions by not only describing conditions at a single point in time, but also representing seasonal conditions periodically. The concentration ranges between 0.04 kg/m3 and 0.06 kg/m3, making it good for aquaculture, marine tourism, and conservation. At high tide, the dispersion of suspended sediment leads to the land; at low tide, it leads to the sea. This study can be utilized as a supplement to prior research, which mainly consisted simply of sediment suspension distribution maps. Full text


Open Access
Investigating The Effects Of Solid Waste Dumps On Surrounding Soil And Ground Water Quality Around Umuwaya Road (Isi-Gate) Umuahia, Abia State
by Onyekwere Precious, Chioma Nwakanma

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 188 views
An increase in industrialization, urbanization, and the rising demand for food and other essentials for human sustainability leads to a rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by individuals, communities, and nations if not properly managed. In Abia State, particularly at the central entrance into the city of Umuahia, generated waste is eventually thrown into open dumps, causing a severe impact on soil, surface and ground water quality. As a result, it has become a probable source of human health risk. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the effect of solid waste dumps on surrounding soil and groundwater quality in Umuwaya Road, Nigeria. Three soil samples and three groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. Heavy metals from soil and groundwater were measured by using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The physicochemical properties of the soil and water samples were also determined following standards. The data was analyzed using the descriptive SPSS statistical package. The concentration of heavy metals in soil samples revealed copper (0.01±0.00–0.26±0.07), cadmium (0.00±0.00–0.18±0.01), lead (0.03±0.01–0.40±0.03), iron (0.06±0.01–0.58± 0.02) and zinc (0.02±0.01–0.20± 0.04). All the water parameters and heavy metals screened in the samples were within the World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) permissible limits, respectively. It is recommended that indiscriminate waste disposal should be prohibited completely in the capital city. Waste reduction, recycling, and reuse must be promoted by the citizens of the state for a sustainable future. Full text


Open Access
Adsorption Isotherm And Kinetic Models For Removal Of Methyl Orange And Remazol Brilliant Blue R By Coconut Shell Activated Carbon
by Hee Tian Hii

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 1999 views
Adsorption technology is one of the efficient and facile method used for wastewater treatment. In this research, coconut shell, an agricultural solid waste was converted into activated carbon via furnace induced and zinc chloride chemical activation techniques. The activated carbon was prepared at activation temperature of 600°C. Anionic dyes, Methyl Orange (MO) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) have been selected due to their harmful effect to the environmental and human. Various effect of parameter such as initial dye concentration, initial pH, adsorbent dosage and agitation speed in batch system were investigated to obtain the optimum condition for both dye adsorption on activated carbon. The optimum dye removal efficiency was around 99% when 5g/L of activated carbon was used. Pseudo-second-order model was the best fitted model with highest correlation (R2 >0.99) compared to other kinetic models. The adsorption behaviour of MO was perfectly presented by the Freundlich model while RBBR was well described by Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity for MO was 59.17mg/g and RBBR was 35.09mg/g. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilised to analyse the chemical characteristics of activated carbon before and after adsorption. Full text


Open Access
Assessing the Impact of Pharmaceutical Contamination in Malaysian Groundwater: Risks, Modelling, and Remediation Strategies
by Michael Lie, Rubiyatno, Faisal Saud Binhudayb, Nguyen Thi Thanh Thao, Risky Ayu Kristanti

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 51 views
Pharmaceuticals in Malaysia’s groundwater are a growing concern as they can potentially affect the environment and human health negatively. Pharmaceuticals are found in abundance in groundwater from sources such as septic tanks, leachates from landfills, wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical-related industries, medical institutions, wastewater treatment plants, and households, agriculture runoff and leakage of effluent wastes in Malaysia. Pharmaceutical contaminant usually travels through advection and dispersion from waterways or soil into the groundwater. The mathematical model of the advection-dispersion equation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are analysed for the prediction of movement and concentration of pharmaceuticals.  Furthermore, the evolution of pharmaceuticals in the environment, living organisms and human health is assessed. Pharmaceuticals have found their way into the food chain and exhibit toxicity and hazard to aquatic ecosystems. However, the toxicity of pharmaceuticals to humans is still not yet much to be researched although strong evidence of possible negative consequences. Moreover, remediation technologies such as activated carbon adsorption, activated sludge, anaerobic treatment and advanced oxidation process are discussed for the mitigation of pharmaceuticals contamination. Full text


Open Access
Microbiological Quality and Physico-chemical Properties of Bore-Hole Water from Stored Water Tanks in Selected Hostels in Ifite-Awka, Nigeria
by Ugochukwu Chukwuma Okafor, Onwugbenu Nneoma Anastasia, Umeoduagu Nnamdi Dike

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 265 views
The microbiological and physicochemical properties of bore-hole waters from water reservoirs in selected hostels in ifite-Awka metropolis were evaluated. Five (5) bore-hole water samples from stored-water tanks were evaluated to ascertain the physicochemical parameters, presence and population of different bacterial and fungal groups. Total heterotrophic bacterial (THC) counts ranged from 1.20x103 cfu/ml to 6.5x103 while the fungal counts spanned from 2.5x103 cfu/ml to 8.9x103 cfu/ml. Bacteria obtained from the borehole waters include Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. E. coli was the most prevalent with MPN 380/100 ml of water reported in sample A while Shigella sp. was the least prevalent with MPN 130/100 ml of water reported in samples B and E. Fungal isolates obtained include Aspergillus species, Candida species, Acremonium species and Cladosporium species. E. coli and Aspergillus spp. were predominant than other isolates. The pH ranged from 6.65 to 7.47; hardness ranged from 92 mg/l to 156 mg/l and Iron concentration ranges from 0.267 ppm to 0.378 ppm, phosphate contents ranged from 2.375 to 6.125 while Nitrate contents ranged from 1.071 to 6.214. The presence of these organisms in water meant for municipalities indicates faecal contamination. This calls for improved sanitary conditions of reservoir tanks in these locations and beyond. Full text


Open Access
Adsorption of Methylene Blue and Reactive Black 5 by Activated Carbon Derived from Tamarind Seeds
by Zaniah Ishak, Sa’diah Salim, Dilip Kumar

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 696 views
One of the most environmentally friendly methods to treat wastewater, especially synthetic dyes, is the production of activated carbon from agricultural waste. Tamarind seeds were transformed from negative-value waste into activated carbon in order to study the removal of synthetic dyes. The particular agro waste was soaked in ZnCl2 for chemical activation to increase its surface area and enhance its porosity. Physical activation of tamarind seeds was done by the carbonization process by burning at a temperature of 300 °C for 1 hour and cooling for 24 hours before washing with HCL to activate a pore surface for the tamarind seeds' carbon. The effects of parameters related to the adsorption of the dyes by tamarind seed activated carbon, such as contact time, initial concentration, absorbance dosage, and pH, were studied. The experimental data found that adsorption on both synthetic dyes exhibited a Langmuir isotherm in which the correlation value, R2, was 0.9227 (methylene blue) and 0.6117 (Reactive black 5). Meanwhile, the rate of adsorption for methylene blue (MB) and Reactive black 5 (RB5) by tamarind seed activated carbon was found to be well fitted in a pseudo-second-order model. More research is needed to meet the standard effluent of dyeing wastewater from the industrial sector. Full text


Open Access
Abundance and Characteristics of Microplastics in the Soil of a Higher Education Institution in China
by Kuok Ho Daniel Tang, Yuxin Luo

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 806 views
While microplastics have been detected in various spheres of the environment, there are few studies examining their abundance in higher education institutions, where their exposure to students and staff could raise concern. This study aims to quantify and characterise the microplastics in the soil of a higher education institution in China. Surface soil samples were collected in triplicate from nine sampling sites distributed evenly across teaching, recreational, and residential areas on campus. The soil samples were sieved with a 5 mm screen, and the fractions passing through the sieve were digested with 30% hydrogen peroxide. Microplastics were density-separated from the digested soil and observed under the microscope. ATR-FTIR was used to determine their compositions. This study reveals a higher abundance of microplastics in teaching and residential areas (150–700 items/kg and 50–650 items/kg, respectively) as compared to recreational areas (0–450 items/kg), with the highest mean abundance (516.7 items/kg) recorded for residential areas. Fibrous and fragment microplastics (31.5% and 33.3%, respectively) were most common in the soil samples, with the former more prevalent in residential areas. There were more black microplastics (36.4%) and white microplastics (29.1%) than those of other colors. Microplastics  0.5 mm constituted the largest fraction (64.3%) of total microplastics recovered and polyethylene microplastics were most abundant (35.2%). This study contributes to a better understanding of microplastic pollution in the compounds of higher education institutions, which could be positively linked to the human activities within those institutions. Full text


Open Access
Phenol Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption Technique Using Coconut Shell Activated Carbon
by Zhi Hoong Ho, Liyana Amalina Adnan

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 608 views
Adsorption is one of the simplest techniques with low economic requirements. Coconut shell is an abundant agriculture waste which is inexpensive and easy to be obtained in Malaysia. This agriculture waste was transformed to activated carbon via 600°C of carbonization and zinc chloride activation. The ability of coconut shell-based activated carbon to remove phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions was evaluated. From the experiment, the equilibrium time for the adsorption of phenol onto coconut shell-based activated carbon is 120 minutes. The effect of the operating parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration, agitation speed, adsorbent dosage, and pH of the phenolic solution were studied. Adsorption kinetics models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich equation) and isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) were used to fit the experimental data.Pseudo-second-order was found to be the best fitted kinetics model to describe the adsorption of phenol on coconut shell-based activated carbon. While the equilibrium experiment data was well expressed by the Temkin isotherm model, The maximum adsorption capacity is determined as 19.02 mg/g, which is comparatively lower than the previous research. Meanwhile, 92% of removal efficiency was achieved by a dosage of 10g/L. Meanwhile, the adsorption of phenol by activated carbon was more favorable under acidic conditions. The favourable isotherm behavior was indicated by the dimensionless separation factor. The functional group and compound class of activated carbon before and after the experiment were determined through the analysis of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Full text


Open Access
Characteristics of Microplastic in Commercial Aquatic Organisms
by Risky Ayu Kristanti, Wei Lin Wong, Yeti Darmayati, Ariani Hatmanti, Nilam Fadmaulidha Wulandari, Mada Triandala Sibero, Nur Fitriah Afianti, Erika Hernandes, Flavio Lopez-Martinez

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 512 views
This study aims to review the occurrence of microplastics in some commercial aquatic organisms. Microplastics are small plastic particles with a diameter of less than 5 mm. Effluent, stormwater, agricultural, and surface runoff introduce microplastic to freshwater basins. Hydrodynamics and hydrology encompass microplastics. River flow speed can cause turbulence and riverbed instability, increasing microplastic concentrations. Fish, shellfish, and crustaceans ingest microplastics in proportion to their quantity in freshwater and marine environments. Human activities cause variations in the form, color, and size of microplastics in the biota. Animals absorb microplastics through trophic transfer. Increased microplastic residence time before ingestion promotes trophic transmission. Lower food concentration and aggregation enhance microplastic retention in zooplankton guts, increasing transmission to higher-trophic-level species. Most studies show that microplastics in biota are discovered in fish and crustacean intestines and bivalve tissues. Microplastic buildup can disrupt live organisms' growth and reproduction, induce oxidative stress, obstruct the digestive system, and damage the intestine. Microplastics may harm people's health if they eat contaminated seafood that contains them, but more research is needed. Full text


Open Access
The Levels of Heavy Metals in the Soil of Illegal Open Dumpsites in Malaysia
by Kuok Ho Daniel Tang, Zhu Hang Goh

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 574 views
This study aims to understand the soil impacts of illegal dumpsites in Malaysia through quantifying the heavy metals in the soil of two dumpsites, one receiving construction waste and the other receiving municipal solid waste. Five soil samples were collected from each dumpsite, and sampling was repeated in the second week to examine the temporal changes in the levels of heavy metals. All sampling was conducted in triplicates. The soil samples were sieved, dried, and digested with aqua regia at 70 °C, after which the digested mixtures were filtered. The filtrates were diluted and tested with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer for heavy metals. Full text


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