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Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. , Vol. 3 Iss. 2 (2023) – 6 articles

			View Vol. 3 Iss. 2 (2023)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.53623/tasp.v3i2
Published: 1 December 2023
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Assessment of Anthropogenic Impact on Ecosystem Service Safety of Agboyi River in Lagos, Southwestern, Nigeria
by Tajudeen Olanrewaju Yahaya, Titilola Fausat Salisu, Abdulganiyu Yunusa, Emmanuel John, Abdulrahman Bashir Yusuf, Abdulrazak Karabonde Umar, Oluwatosin Abe

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 2023, 3(2), pp 184-195; https://doi.org/10.53623/tasp.v3i2.281

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The Agboyi River in Lagos, Nigeria provides important ecosystem services; however, anthropogenic activities are polluting the river, necessitating periodic monitoring. This study assessed the heavy metal content (lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and arsenic) in water samples from the river. Additionally, we evaluated various physicochemical parameters, including pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, hardness, magnesium, calcium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. The values of each heavy metal were used to calculate human average daily ingestion (ADI), average daily dermal exposure (ADDE), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR). The physicochemical analysis revealed non-permissible levels of TDS, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, hardness, magnesium, calcium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and phosphate. The heavy metal analysis showed intolerable levels of lead, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and copper. The ADIs for the heavy metals were within the recommended dietary intake (RDI), but their ADDEs exceeded the RDI, except for chromium. The HQ and CR for all heavy metals exceeded recommended limits. Seasonal variations were observed in the physicochemical parameters, with TDS, turbidity, acidity, nitrate, and phosphate being higher in the wet season, while other parameters were higher in the dry season. The water poses health hazards to users, indicating the need for river remediation. Full text


Microbiological Quality and Physico-chemical Properties of Bore-Hole Water from Stored Water Tanks in Selected Hostels in Ifite-Awka, Nigeria
by Ugochukwu Chukwuma Okafor, Onwugbenu Nneoma Anastasia, Umeoduagu Nnamdi Dike

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 2023, 3(2), pp 144-152; https://doi.org/10.53623/tasp.v3i2.267

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The microbiological and physicochemical properties of bore-hole waters from water reservoirs in selected hostels in ifite-Awka metropolis were evaluated. Five (5) bore-hole water samples from stored-water tanks were evaluated to ascertain the physicochemical parameters, presence and population of different bacterial and fungal groups. Total heterotrophic bacterial (THC) counts ranged from 1.20x103 cfu/ml to 6.5x103 while the fungal counts spanned from 2.5x103 cfu/ml to 8.9x103 cfu/ml. Bacteria obtained from the borehole waters include Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. E. coli was the most prevalent with MPN 380/100 ml of water reported in sample A while Shigella sp. was the least prevalent with MPN 130/100 ml of water reported in samples B and E. Fungal isolates obtained include Aspergillus species, Candida species, Acremonium species and Cladosporium species. E. coli and Aspergillus spp. were predominant than other isolates. The pH ranged from 6.65 to 7.47; hardness ranged from 92 mg/l to 156 mg/l and Iron concentration ranges from 0.267 ppm to 0.378 ppm, phosphate contents ranged from 2.375 to 6.125 while Nitrate contents ranged from 1.071 to 6.214. The presence of these organisms in water meant for municipalities indicates faecal contamination. This calls for improved sanitary conditions of reservoir tanks in these locations and beyond. Full text


The Effect of Septage Sludge and Oxidizing Agents in the Microbial Fuel Cells Generating Electricity
by Vidia Wahyu Meidy Safitri, Adhi Yuniarto, Alfan Purnomo, Bara Awanda Marhendra

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 2023, 3(2), pp 153-167; https://doi.org/10.53623/tasp.v3i2.272

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Earlier research demonstrated the efficacy of microbial fuel cells in both wastewater treatment and renewable electric current generation. In this process, microbial fuel cells harness the potential of wastewater as a substrate and energy source, enabling microorganisms to generate electric current. Introducing microorganisms sourced from septage sludge acts as a microbial catalyst. Additionally, tofu wastewater is employed as a nutritional resource to support the growth of these microorganisms. A dual-chamber reactor was utilized to carry out this study, featuring an anode and a cathode connected through a salt bridge. Various substrate variations were performed on the anode, specifically with a combination of tofu liquid waste and septage sludge at ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. Additionally, different electrolyte solutions, such as KMnO4 and K3(Fe(CN)6), were used at the cathode. Using different electrolyte solutions as electron acceptors can enhance the electric current production generated. The study spanned 240 hours of operation, during which electric current, voltage, COD, and BOD measurements were taken at 48-hour intervals. The findings revealed that including septage sludge in a 1:3 ratio yielded the highest current strength compared to other substrate variations, measuring 16.34 mA. When using a 0.25 M KMnO4 as an electrolyte solution, the voltage recorded was 8.78 V. Additionally, the most effective removal of COD and BOD content was achieved with a substrate ratio of 1:3 in the presence of KMnO4, achieving removal rates of 95.12% and 96.45%, respectively. These results indicate that adding septage sludge contributes to increased electricity current production. Full text


Role of Fungi in Biodegradation of Bisphenol A: A Review
by Risky Ayu Kristanti, Fitria Ningsih, Indri Yati, Joseph Kasongo, Elias Mtui, Kong Rachana

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 2023, 3(2), pp 131-143; https://doi.org/10.53623/tasp.v3i2.241

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Bisphenol A (BPA) is recognized as an endocrine disruptor, capable of interfering with the normal functioning of hormones within the body by mimicking the effects of estrogen. Drinking water is one of the most common pathways of exposure to BPA as it can permeate plastic products and other materials, entering water sources. This article presents a comprehensive overview of BPA, including its incidence, origins, environmental fate, its impact on human health, and the role of fungi in the biodegradation of BPA. Fungi are natural decomposers, capable of breaking down organic compounds, including BPA, under suitable conditions. Studies have demonstrated that specific species of fungi can effectively biodegrade BPA. Some fungi utilize ligninolytic enzymes, such as laccases and peroxidases, to break down the phenolic rings of BPA. Other fungi employ non-ligninolytic enzymes, such as esterases and hydrolases, to cleave the ester linkages in BPA. Furthermore, some fungi can break down BPA via cometabolic pathways, whereby the chemical is degraded as a side reaction to the degradation of another substrate. The use of immobilized enzymes for BPA degradation has also demonstrated potential. Immobilized enzymes are those that are attached to a solid support, such as a polymer or matrix, allowing them to be used multiple times and enhance their stability and catalytic activity Full text


A Review of Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Regulatory Frameworks: Their Implications on Malaysia
by Kuok Ho Daniel Tang

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 2023, 3(2), pp 168-183; https://doi.org/10.53623/tasp.v3i2.282

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The increasing emphasis on sustainability has led many nations to introduce ESG-related regulatory frameworks. These frameworks aim to regulate and guide financial investments based on the ESG performance of companies while ensuring transparency to prevent the manipulation of sustainability-related information concerning investment products. This article reviews the regulatory and disclosure frameworks implemented in different nations and regions to identify their key components. The review reveals that these regulatory frameworks capture the environmental aspects encompassing climate change adaptation and mitigation, identification, evaluation and management of climate risks, circular economy practices, and pollution prevention. They also cover the social aspects, which include community development, employee welfare, and human rights. Additionally, governance aspects comprising anti-corruption measures, diversity within company boards and management, and the implementation of due diligence were included. The increased emphasis on transparency underscores the importance of disclosure. In this regard, the disclosure frameworks largely align with the recommendations of the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures, which cover governance, strategies for identifying and assessing risks and opportunities, their impacts on a company's finances and operations, resilience-building through scenario analyses, risk management integration with the overall organizational risk management, and the use of metrics and targets to measure performance. Malaysia could benefit from adopting comprehensive regulatory and disclosure frameworks that address ESG holistically, with elements related to the circular economy and dual materiality included in the frameworks. Future studies could focus on standardizing the development of metrics and targets to facilitate performance comparisons. Full text


Microplastics in and Near Landlocked Countries of Central and East Asia: A Review of Occurrence and Characteristics
by Kuok Ho Daniel Tang

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 2023, 3(2), pp 120-130; https://doi.org/10.53623/tasp.v3i2.262

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The detection of microplastics in the water and sediment samples of the landlocked countries in central and eastern Asia means the relatively less populous countries are not spared from microplastic pollution. It is crucial to understand the severity of microplastic pollution in and near those countries since there are significantly fewer regional studies on microplastic pollution conducted for those countries. This review aims to systematically present the occurrence and characteristics of microplastics in and near the landlocked countries to shed light on the severity of microplastic pollution therein. It analyzed the contents of more than 38 papers to achieve its aim. Of all the landlocked countries, Mongolia has the most studies on microplastic pollution, while there are none for Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. For dried sediment samples, the microplastic contents ranged from 862 items/kg in the Tuul River of Mongolia to 15–46 items/kg on the Iranian side of the Caspian Sea near Turkmenistan. Lake Hovsgol in Mongolia recorded a microplastic density of 20,264 items/km2, whereas the Selenga River system had a mean microplastic density of 120.14 items/km2. Microplastics concentrations in the Caspian Sea varied, with areas near the southwest of Turkmenistan having microplastics concentrations ranging from 0.000246 items/l to 0.710 items/l. The microplastics levels in the countries are comparable to those of other regions in the world, indicating the impacts of human activities on microplastic pollution. Some microplastics might also have entered the countries through long-range transport by air and water from areas of higher human activity. Full text