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Civil and Sustainable Urban Engineering

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. , Vol. 2 Iss. 2 (2022) – 5 articles

			View Vol. 2 Iss. 2 (2022)
Published: 12 December 2022
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Rejuvenating the Market for Earth-Based Building Construction Materials in a Developing Economy
by William Nwaki, Emmanuel Eze

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2022, 2(2), pp 110-127;

Earth-based materials are useful in building and engineering construction projects globally, but they have largely remained unextracted and wasted, and their use has been limited to rural areas and avoided in modern buildings in the cities. The sustainability market in developing countries is still largely unsaturated and undertapped. This situation is blamed on lack of knowledge of the potential, benefits, and characteristics of green and sustainable building materials. This study aimed at determining the benefits of earth-based materials that could lead to the rejuvenation of the market for their adoption in building construction projects in the urban areas of a developing economy. The study adopted a structured questionnaire administered via electronic means to construction experts using the snowball sampling technique in Nigeria. With a response rate of 62.94% and a reliability index of over 0.90, the gathered data were analysed using frequency, percentage, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The study revealed that the main clusters of benefits of earth-based materials that can stimulate the market for these materials in urban areas are "cost and pollution-related benefits," "emissions and environmental benefits," "waste and workability benefits," "sound and fire-related benefits," and "thermal insulation and resource efficiency." The study recommended that housing investors, clients, and stakeholders should capitalise on the availability of large quantities of earthen materials to improve the quantity of housing provisions in cities and urban areas. Full text

Internal Stakeholders’ Contribution to Building Collapse in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Perceptual Survey
by Olumide Afolarin Adenuga, Innocent Chigozie Osuizugbo, Ikhelo Benedict Imoesi

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2022, 2(2), pp 67-81;

Building collapse is a universal problem that has resulted in disruption, loss of lives and capital costs, as well as negatively affecting the image of the construction industry and its practitioners. The current study seeks to achieve the following objectives: (i) to assess the contributing factors of internal stakeholders to building collapse due to challenges faced in Lagos state, Nigeria; (ii) to determine the remedies to challenges faced by internal stakeholders towards reducing the spate of building collapses in the study area. The study adopted a survey research method. Questionnaires were administered to purposively selected internal stakeholders in the Nigerian construction industry within Lagos state. 127 questionnaires were administered to survey participants. The data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results revealed a lack of consideration of life cycle costing of utilities, lighting and lifts; lack of proper integration and coordination of design elements; failure to consider the buildability and maintenance requirements during the design; absence of proper supervision and site inspections for quality checks; and failure to inspect materials storage on site, with their mean scores of 4.18, 4.11, 4.10, 4.10, and 4.10, respectively, as the top five contributing factors of internal stakeholders to building collapse in Lagos state. The study provided in-depth insight into the contributing factors of internal stakeholders to building collapse that can help construction professionals and stakeholders facilitate the development of strategies required to minimize the contributing factors of internal stakeholders to building collapse in the construction sector. Full text

Engineered Nanoparticles for Wastewater Treatment System
by Tara Hafiz Rayhan, Chi Nam Yap, Arma Yulisa, Rubiyatno, Irina Popescu, Jose Arturo Alvarez, Risky Ayu Kristanti

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2022, 2(2), pp 56-66;

Industrial and commercial use of engineered nanoparticles is rising. Less care is given to the negative effects on the environment and wastewater treatment systems, which could release hazardous pathogens and microorganisms and threaten human health. Due to their size and features, artificial nanoparticles can easily enter wastewater systems and impair treatment. This paper aimed to focus on nanoparticle detection limitations and their effects on wastewater treatment technologies. Nanoparticles have the potential to be utilised in the treatment of waste water. By virtue of its exceptionally high surface area, it can effectively remove poisonous metal ions, microorganisms that cause disease, as well as organic and inorganic solutes from water. Various groups of nanomaterials, such as metal-containing nanoparticles, carbonaceous nanomaterials, zeolites, and dendrimers, have been demonstrated to be effective for water purification. Composites are two or more materials assembled synthetically. Nanocomposites are vital for environmental rehabilitation because pollution is one of the world's biggest concerns and polluted water management. Population growth has increased the need for clean water. This includes ceramics, metal-based polymers, carbon, and iron-based graphene. Nanocomposites such as carboxyl methyl may adsorb a heavy metal ion and pesticide at a satisfactory rate. This study found that nanocomposites are good for restoring the environment and can be used in countries with low incomes. Full text

Utilization of Green Material for Concrete in Construction
by Wei Sheng Choong, Jian Chong Chiu, Flavio Lopez-Martinez, Abdullah Alaklabi, Mariana Claudia Oliveira, Surya Dewi Puspitasari, Julius Adebayo

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2022, 2(2), pp 82-95;

In this modern technological era today, green materials are highly regarded as one of the most important elements when designing and conducting an environmentally sustainable construction project. The cement that is utilized in conventional concrete today is one of the culprits for the high levels of carbon dioxide generated, which is damaging to the environment. Many researchers have shown and suggested that cement substitution is a favorite technique for minimizing the generation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as substituting unused raw materials with concrete. The concept of green concrete promotes sustainable development as it utilizes the least natural resources during production and mainly depends on recyclable waste materials as its main raw material. This paper displays the various designs of green concrete in developed countries by partially replacing cement with recyclable materials such as fly ash, demolished waste from construction sites, electronic waste, carpet fiber waste, palm oil fuel ash, and others. Green concrete endorses the innovative and sustainable use of waste aggregate and unconventional alternative materials to substitute cement within concrete. It is crucial to adopt the use of green concrete, especially in developed countries, as they have the capacity and financial strength to ensure adequate training, public awareness, further research and demonstration projects, as well as suitable standards to be applied to endorse the global application of green concrete in infrastructure projects. Full text

Valorization of Plastic Waste through Incorporation into Construction Materials
by Kuok Ho Daniel Tang

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2022, 2(2), pp 96-109;

The growing plastic pollution has prompted the quest to reduce plastic waste sustainably and control the mismanaged plastic stream. The valorization of plastic waste through reusing and recycling has received much attention as a sustainable solution to the global plastic problem, and the construction sector provides an important avenue for such an endeavor. This review aims to present the latest advances in the valorization of plastic waste as construction and building materials through the review of 60 relevant scholarly papers and a content analysis of the papers. In the construction sector, plastic waste can be valorized as additives or raw materials for brick production. As additives, plastic waste is added at different proportions (1%–70%) with other materials, including non-plastic waste, followed by curing to acquire the desired properties. Plastic waste is used as a raw material to contain strength-imparting materials. The former has been reported to have good strengths (5.15-55.91 MPa), chemical, and thermal resistance, whereas the latter may impart lower strengths (0.67-15.25 MPa). Plastic waste is also used as additives for road pavement, primarily as substitutes for concrete-making materials, and was observed to produce desirable strengths (0.95–35 MPa) at appropriate proportions (0.5–25%), indicating the importance of optimizing the plastic contents in the concrete. Plastic waste has been recycled as plastic lumber, plastic-based door panels and gates, as well as insulation materials. Plastic-based construction materials are generally lightweight, resistant to chemicals and heat, and have good sound insulation, but they may pose a fire safety concern. Full text