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Civil and Sustainable Urban Engineering

Journal Description

Civil and Sustainable Urban Engineering

Civil and Sustainable Urban Engineering (e-ISSN: 2808-9200) is an international, scientific, peer-reviewed, open-access journal on all aspects of basic and applied research involving three important divisions of Civil Engineering, Construction Management, and Urban Engineering published biannually online (June and December) by Society of Tropical Science and Technology & Tecno Scientifica.

Open Access
e-ISSN: 2808-9200
Optimizing Food Waste Decomposition through pH, Moisture Content, and Temperature Control: A Comprehensive Study
by Abila Hena Anayet, Meor Mohammad Hilmi Bin Hamzah, Mohamed Zuhaili Mohamed Najib

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2024, 4(1), pp 42-54;

Composting, a crucial process in sustainable waste management, transforms organic matter into nutrient-rich compost, which is an organic byproduct of the decomposition process known as composting. Compost serves as a sustainable means of recycling various organic materials into a nutrient-rich soil conditioner, finding applications in gardens, landscaping, horticulture, urban agriculture, and organic farming. This paper investigated the complex factors affecting the maturity of compost, focusing on parameters such as temperature, pH, and moisture content. The breakdown rates of eight carefully regulated combinations were compared to a sample that had not been altered. The analytic results showed the volume loss over time was a critical component in determining the maturity of compost. Combinations two (Temperature=High, Moisture Content=High, pH=Low), three (Temperature=High, Moisture Content=Low, pH=High), and four (Temperature=High, Moisture Content=Low, pH=Low) showed the most percentage volume loss by day 46, indicating faster maturation compared to the uncontrolled group. In this volume loss comparison, the circular truncated cone formula played a crucial role in revealing the ideal combinations for compost maturation. This comprehensive study not only contributed valuable insights into optimizing composting conditions but also highlighted the diverse applications of compost. By examining the complex interactions between pH, moisture content, and temperature, this study enhanced our knowledge of sustainable waste-to-resource operations and effective composting techniques. Full text

Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Slabs with Embedded Polystyrene Spheres
by Jen Hua Ling, Ji Wei Lau, Yong Tat Lim

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2024, 4(1), pp 1-19;

Polystyrene spheres can be used to substitute concrete in reinforced concrete slabs. Despite the weight, the structural performance of the slab would also be affected. This study investigated the behaviour of slabs containing polystyrene spheres under loads. Six specimens were fabricated and tested under the four-point load setup. The parameters studied included the diameters of the polystyrene spheres and the spacing between them. The polystyrene spheres reduced the slabs’ first crack load, stiffness, yield strength, and ultimate strength. The first crack, yield, and ultimate loads decreased by 22.3%, 2.1%, and 4.1%, respectively, when the polystyrene sphere’s diameter increased from 75 mm to 125 mm. As the polystyrene spheres’ spacing decreased from 50 mm to 10 mm, the first crack, yield, and ultimate loads dropped 14.2%, 9.2%, and 7%, respectively. Despite some limitations identified during the feasibility analysis, specimen SP3 was found feasible as a simply supported one-way spanning slab. In the specimen, the polystyrene spheres were 0.625 times the slab thickness in diameter and 2.5 times the concrete cover in spacing. Full text

Chemical and Mechanical Characterisation of Clay Soil Stabilised with Steel Slag and Calcium Carbide Waste
by Damilola Ayodele Ogundare, Oyetunde Oluwafemi Adeleke, Ayodeji Theophilus Akinbuluma

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2024, 4(1), pp 55-64;

Problematic subgrade soil such as clay is expansive by nature and is challenging to work with during pavement construction. In an effort to combat this issue and lower the rate of pavement failure on highway construction projects, cementitious industrial waste materials should be used. This study thus examined the influence of steel slag (SS) and calcium carbide waste (CCW) as stabilisers for clay soil. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of clay soil, SS and CCW were assessed while the stabilised soil were subjugated to Atterberg limit, compaction and california bearing ratio (CBR) tests. The existence of calcium oxide, iron oxide and calcium hydroxide in both the chemical and mineralogical constituents of SS and CCW indicate that they are binding materials which notably influences hardness and contributes more to the strength of the clay soil. With varied amounts of the additives (SS and CCR), the clay soil's liquid limit and plasticity index dropped from 54.0% and 13.8% to 43.5% and 9.2%, respectively. This significantly lowers the clay soil’s swell potential, increases its resilience, and decreases its infiltration capacity. The compaction characteristics revealed that SS and CCW enhanced the compactness of the clay soil signifying enhancement of the soil compaction properties. The CBR value of all the stabilised clay soils improve significantly with 40%SS + 60%CCW acquiring the maximum CBR of 17.3% and 29.0% compared with clay soil having CBR of 4.7% and 6.9% in soaked and unsoaked states respectively. Full text

Performance of Grouted Splice Sleeve as A Connection for Wall Panels
by Jen Hua Ling, Ahmad Baharuddin Abd. Rahman, Izni Syahrizal Ibrahim

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2024, 4(1), pp 20-41;

A grouted sleeve is a mechanical coupler used to join steel bars. It can be used to join precast concrete walls. Most grouted sleeves are pricey proprietary products. This study investigated the behaviour of a grouted sleeve made of steel pipe sections. The grouted sleeve was used as a wall panel connection. The specimens were subjected to three types of loads: tensile, shear, and flexural. The performance of the specimens was evaluated based on the load-displacement responses. For satisfactory bond strength, a bar embedded length of 11 times the bar diameter was required. The grouted sleeve performed well in tension but poorly in shear load. The service shear load was just one-third of the total load capacity. Thus, the grouted sleeve was not recommended for resisting shear load without shear keys to strengthen the joint. Full text