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Tropical Environment, Biology, and Technology

Trop. Environ. Biol. Technol. , Vol. 1 Iss. 2 (2023) – 5 articles

			View Vol. 1 Iss. 2 (2023)
Published: 29 December 2023
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Open Access Articles
Evaluation of the Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Isolates from Feed and Water of Selected Poultry Farms in Awka Anambra State, Nigeria
by Ugochukwu Chukwuma Okafor, Christian Ifeanyi Okpechi, Nnamdi Dike Umeoduagu

Trop. Environ. Biol. Technol. 2023, 1(2), pp 67-75;

The susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from poultry feeds and poultry water samples to selected antibiotics was assessed. Standard methods were used to analyze selected poultry feeds and poultry water samples. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the bacterial isolates were determined against the following antibacterial agents: erythromycin (10 µg), ciprofloxacin (10 µg), ampiclox (20 µg), rifampicin (20 µg), amoxil (20 µg), septrin (30 µg), ampicillin (30 µg), ceporex (10 µg), levofloxacin (20 µg), gentamicin (10 µg), streptomycin (30 µg), norfloxacin (10 µg), chloramphenicol (30 µg), ofloxacin (10 µg), nalidixic acid (30 µg), reflecine (10 µg), and augmentin (30 µg).The highest viable counts of bacteria isolated from poultry feed and water samples were 2.7x106 cfu/g and 1.69x103 cfu/ml, respectively. The highest fungal counts in the poultry feed and water samples were 1.60x105 cfu/g and 2x105 cfu/ml, respectively. Bacterial isolates from poultry feed and water samples included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella species, and Staphylococcus aureus. Fungal isolates included Aspergillus species, Penicillium species, Mucor species, and Candida species.Staphylococcus aureus exhibited the highest susceptibility to most of the antibiotics, while Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the highest resistance, as it was resistant to five out of the ten antibiotics tested in this study. The research has demonstrated that poultry feed and poultry water showed varying levels of contamination, which may pose serious health risks to poultry. Amoxil, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, reflecine, and ofloxacin are recommended for use as antibiotics to treat diseases that may be caused by some of these pathogens. Full text

Open Access Articles
Microbial Assessment of Aprons Worn By Some Street Food Vendors In Awka South, Anambra State, Nigeria
by Ugochukwu Chukwuma Okafor, Ene Chimbuzor Justin, Onyeneho Vitus Ikechi

Trop. Environ. Biol. Technol. 2023, 1(2), pp 86-93;

Many food vendors touch money and other contaminated items with their bare hands before serving meals to customers without cleaning them. This creates a pathway for microorganisms to spread from their hands to the aprons and then the food. A total of six swabs were aseptically collected randomly from different parts in the respective aprons of food vendors from six randomly selected street food vendor points within the premises of the study area. The isolates' cultural and morphological characteristics were identified. Four bacterial and six fungal isolates were found in the aprons. The bacterial isolates include Staphylococcus aureus (32.7%), Bacillus spp.(21.8%), Klebsiella spp.(11.1%) and Escherichia coli (34.01%) while the fungal isolates include Mucor spp. (12.1%), Candida spp. (17.1%), Microsporum canis (17.1%), Penicillium spp. (9.7%) and Aspergillus spp. (24.3%) for fungi were isolated. Escherichia coli and  Aspergillus species were the most prevalent bacterial and fungal isolates respectively. It was observed that aprons of food-vendors who stay in close proximity to garbage dumps contained higher levels of pathogenic organisms. The results of this study showed that most food vendors fail to maintain proper food hygiene, which raises concerns for the public's health. Education of food vendors on personal, environmental, and food hygiene is crucial since it will help to reduce apron contamination and improve the safety of the food provided at vending locations. Full text

Open Access Articles
Demographics and Chemical Preservatives Used by Vegetable and Fruit Retailers Selected Across Markets in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria
by Tajudeen Yahaya, Amarachi Ukeoma, Mohammed Musa, Lukman Abdullahi, Abubakar Muhammad, Emmanuel John

Trop. Environ. Biol. Technol. 2023, 1(2), pp 76-85;

Literatures show that several thousands of Nigerians die yearly from poisoning caused by chemical preservatives used for vegetables and fruits. Thus, there is the need to prioritize the safety of vegetables and fruits consumed in every locality in the country. The demographics of 50 vegetable and fruit retailers randomly selected across markets in Lagos, Nigeria, as well as types of chemical preservatives used, were determined in this study. The survey revealed that 32 (64%) of the participants were females, while 18 (36%) were males. Participants with no formal education were 2 (4%), those with primary education were 13 (26%), those with secondary education consisted of 24 (46%), and those with tertiary education made up of 11 members (22%). 16 (32%) participants were Hausa, 13 (26%) participants were Yoruba, 12 (24%) participants were Igbo, and the rest were sub-ethnic groups. 28 (56%) participants use natural methods, while 22 (44.00%) participants use chemical preservatives, mostly pesticides. Of the 22 participants that use chemicals, gammalin-20 was used by 6 (27%) participants, sniper was used by 4 (18%) participants, aluminum phosphide was used by 4 (18%) participants, DDT (otapiapia) was used by 3 (14%) participants, carbide was used by 3 (14%) participants, and brodifacum was used by 2 (9%) participants. Based on these results, there is a significant use of chemical preservatives across markets in Lagos, which can predispose consumers to health hazards. Vegetable and fruit retailers and consumers in the city need to be sensitized on the health threat posed by chemical preservatives. Full text

Open Access Articles
Effect of Land Use Types on Soil Properties in Benin City, Nigeria
by Ehizonomhen Okonofua, Emmanuel Ogbomida, Chukwudi Emeribe, Beckely Anichie, Oluchi Emeribe

Trop. Environ. Biol. Technol. 2023, 1(2), pp 94-109;

This study examined the impact of land use types on soil characteristics in Benin City, Nigeria. In both the rainy and dry seasons, soil samples were taken from a farmland at the University of Benin in Nigeria at depths of 0–15 and 15–30 cm, respectively. The physicochemical parameters investigated include pH, EC, carbon content, nitrogen, organic matter, phosphorus, aluminum, and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), as well as Ca, Mg, K, and Na. When comparing seasonal differences in pH, phosphorus, aluminum, and CEC levels, significant differences were revealed at ρ < 0.05, d = 0.0001 for pH, ρ < 0.05, d = 0.0001 for phosphorus, ρ < 0.05, d = 0.0002 for aluminum, and ρ < 0.05, d = 0.019 for CEC, respectively. Conversely, the seasonal differences in EC, carbon content, nitrogen, and organic matter were not significant at ρ < 0.05, d = 0.46 for EC, ρ < 0.05, d = 0.30 for carbon content, ρ < 0.05, d = 0.46 for nitrogen, and ρ < 0.05, d = 0.31 for organic matter, respectively. The investigated soil physico-chemical properties did not vary significantly according to land use types at ρ and d values. This study showed that, in general, soil characteristics were highly influenced by different land uses and hence emphasizes the need to monitor urban land use activities. Full text

Climate Change and Plastic Pollution: A Review of Their Connections
by Kuok Ho Daniel Tang

Trop. Environ. Biol. Technol. 2023, 1(2), pp 110-120;

The world faces two major environmental issues concurrently, namely climate change and plastic pollution. Though seemingly unrelated, they intricately influence each other. This review aims to present the intricate connections between climate change and plastic pollution through the review of recent literature in these genres. The review explains that global warming could increase plastic degradation through physical, chemical, and biological processes, leading to an increased abundance of microplastics. Global warming enhances the leaching of chemicals from microplastics. Higher temperatures promote desorption of chemicals sorbed on plastics by providing the adsorbates with more kinetic energy to overcome attractions with the adsorbents. Higher temperatures can also promote biofilm formation and alter the microbial community structures of biofilms. Melting sea ice and glaciers associated with warming temperatures release the microplastics trapped in the environment. Sea-level rise and extreme weather events enhance the transfer of microplastics between land, ocean, and air, thus changing their distribution and transport, while ocean acidification may influence the biofouling of microplastics and increase the vulnerability of some corals to the impacts of microplastics. Plastic pollution, however, exacerbates climate change due to the release of greenhouse gases throughout the lifecycle of plastics. Microplastics also adversely affect the growth of microalgae, hence the ocean carbon cycle. Airborne microplastics can alter the energy balance of the Earth through scattering and absorbing radiation. This review suggests a circular economic approach to minimize waste, maximize the reuse and recycling of plastics, and promote the use of plastic substitutes to address both issues. Full text