Skip to main content
Search for Articles:
Tropical Environment, Biology, and Technology

Open Access Articles

Evaluation of the Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Isolates from Feed and Water of Selected Poultry Farms in Awka Anambra State, Nigeria

by Ugochukwu Chukwuma Okafor 1 , Christian Ifeanyi Okpechi 1 , Nnamdi Dike Umeoduagu 2
1 Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Tansian University, Umunya, Nigeria.

SUBMITTED: 26 July 2023; ACCEPTED: 18 September 2023; PUBLISHED: 23 September 2023

Submission to final decision takes 53 days.

Get rights and content
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License



The susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from poultry feeds and poultry water samples to selected antibiotics was assessed. Standard methods were used to analyze selected poultry feeds and poultry water samples. The antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the bacterial isolates were determined against the following antibacterial agents: erythromycin (10 µg), ciprofloxacin (10 µg), ampiclox (20 µg), rifampicin (20 µg), amoxil (20 µg), septrin (30 µg), ampicillin (30 µg), ceporex (10 µg), levofloxacin (20 µg), gentamicin (10 µg), streptomycin (30 µg), norfloxacin (10 µg), chloramphenicol (30 µg), ofloxacin (10 µg), nalidixic acid (30 µg), reflecine (10 µg), and augmentin (30 µg).The highest viable counts of bacteria isolated from poultry feed and water samples were 2.7x106 cfu/g and 1.69x103 cfu/ml, respectively. The highest fungal counts in the poultry feed and water samples were 1.60x105 cfu/g and 2x105 cfu/ml, respectively. Bacterial isolates from poultry feed and water samples included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella species, and Staphylococcus aureus. Fungal isolates included Aspergillus species, Penicillium species, Mucor species, and Candida species.Staphylococcus aureus exhibited the highest susceptibility to most of the antibiotics, while Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the highest resistance, as it was resistant to five out of the ten antibiotics tested in this study. The research has demonstrated that poultry feed and poultry water showed varying levels of contamination, which may pose serious health risks to poultry. Amoxil, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, reflecine, and ofloxacin are recommended for use as antibiotics to treat diseases that may be caused by some of these pathogens.

Previous article

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License
© 2023 Ugochukwu Chukwuma Okafor, Christian Ifeanyi Okpechi, Nnamdi Dike Umeoduagu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share and Cite

ACS Styles
APA Styles
Okafor, U. C., Okpechi, C. I. ., & Umeoduagu, N. D. . (2023). Evaluation of the Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Isolates from Feed and Water of Selected Poultry Farms in Awka Anambra State, Nigeria. Tropical Environment, Biology, and Technology, 1(2), 67–75.
MLA Styles
Find Other Styles

Okafor, U.C.; Ugwuegbulem, P.M. (2022). Antimicrobial Susceptibility Evaluation Of Microorganisms Isolated From Poultry Water In Awka Metropolis. Journal of Biochemistry International, 9, 1–9.

Awogbemi, J.; Adeyeye, M.; Akinkunmi, E.O. (2018). A survey of Antimicrobial Agents Usage in Poultry Farms and Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli and Staphylococci Isolates from the Poultry in Ile-lfe Nigeria. Journal of Infectious Disease and Epidemiology, 4, 047.

Global Animal Slaughter Statistics and Charts. (accessed on 1 July 2023) Available online:

Gillespie, J.R. and Flanders, F.B. (2010). Modern Livestock and Poultry Production, 9th ed.; Cengage Learning: Singapore.

El Sabry, M.I., Romeih, Z.U., Stino, F.K.R.;Khosht, A.R.; Aggrey, S.F. (2023). Water scarcity can be a critical limitation for the poultry industry. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 55, 215.

Lin, L.; Nonejuie, P.; Munguia, J.; Hollands, A.; Olson, J.; Dam, Q.; Kumaraswamy, M.; Rivera, H.; Corriden R.; Rohde, M.; Hensler, M.E.; Burkart, M.D.; Pogliano, J.; Sakoulas, G.; Nizet, V. (2015). Azithromycin Synergizes with Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides to Enhance Killing of Gram-negative Bacteria. Science Translational Medicine, 7, 311170.

Microbiology of Poultry Meat Products. (accessed on 1 July 2023) Available online:

Hassanain, N.A. (2013). Public Health Importance of Foodborne Pathogens. World Journal of Medicine Sciences, 9, 208222.

Tabler, T. (2023). Poultry Disease Diagnosis. PhD Thesis. Mississippi State University, Mississippi, USA.

Okafor, U.C.; Ayejimba, C.I.; Archibong, E.J.; Umeh, S.O. (2018). Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from Abattoirs in Awka Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7, 23197706.

Obasi C.J.; Obasi I.S.; Okafor U.C.; Umeh S.O.; Okoro N.C.; Nzekwe C. (2018). Bacteriological Assessment of Tissue Papers Sold in Eke Awka Market in Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 4, 2730.

Holt, J. G.; Greig, N.R.; Sneath, P.A.; Statey, J.T.; Williams, S.T. (1994). Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins:Baltimore, USA,p.787.

Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 27th Edition. (accessed on 1 July 2023) Available online:

Onyeze, R.C.; Onah, G.T.; Eluke, O.C. (2013). Bacteria Contaminants Associated with Commercial Poultry Feeds in Enugu Nigeria. International Journal of Life Science Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research, 2, 22503137.

Okafor, U.C.; Mmaduabuchi, C. E. (2022). Assessment of The Microbial Quality of Some Cassava Granules (Garri) Sold at Umuoji Major Markets, Anambra State Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 14, 19–26.

Mokubedi, S. M., Phoku, J. Z., Changwa, R. N., Gbashi, S., Njobeh, P. B. (2019). Analysis of Mycotoxins Contamination in Poultry Feeds Manufactured in Selected Provinces of South Africa Using UHPLC-MS/MS. Toxins, 11, 452.

Nwadinkpa, F.E.; Nireti, F.C.; Zainab, A.K. (2021). Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Bacterial Isolates from Commercial Poultry Farms in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering,6, 5967.

Tong, S.Y.; Davis, J.S.; Eichenberger, E.; Holland, T.L.; Fowler, Jr V.G. (2015). Staphylococcus aureus Infections: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 28, 603610.

Denning, D.W.; Pleuvry, A.; Cole, D.C. (2013). Global Burden of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicating Sarcoidosis. European Respiratory Journal, 41, 621623.

Hersh A.L.; Chambers, H.F.; Maselli, J.H.; Gonzales, R. (2008). National Trends in Ambulatory visits and Antibiotic Prescribing for Skin and Soft-tissue Infections. Archives of International Medicine, 168, 15851591.

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal statistics, click here.