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Tropical Aquatic and Soil Pollution

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Keyword = abundance
Journal = Tropical Aquatic and Soil Pollution
Found 3 items.
Open Access
Abundance and Characteristics of Microplastics in the Soil of a Higher Education Institution in China
by Kuok Ho Daniel Tang, Yuxin Luo

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 806 views
While microplastics have been detected in various spheres of the environment, there are few studies examining their abundance in higher education institutions, where their exposure to students and staff could raise concern. This study aims to quantify and characterise the microplastics in the soil of a higher education institution in China. Surface soil samples were collected in triplicate from nine sampling sites distributed evenly across teaching, recreational, and residential areas on campus. The soil samples were sieved with a 5 mm screen, and the fractions passing through the sieve were digested with 30% hydrogen peroxide. Microplastics were density-separated from the digested soil and observed under the microscope. ATR-FTIR was used to determine their compositions. This study reveals a higher abundance of microplastics in teaching and residential areas (150–700 items/kg and 50–650 items/kg, respectively) as compared to recreational areas (0–450 items/kg), with the highest mean abundance (516.7 items/kg) recorded for residential areas. Fibrous and fragment microplastics (31.5% and 33.3%, respectively) were most common in the soil samples, with the former more prevalent in residential areas. There were more black microplastics (36.4%) and white microplastics (29.1%) than those of other colors. Microplastics  0.5 mm constituted the largest fraction (64.3%) of total microplastics recovered and polyethylene microplastics were most abundant (35.2%). This study contributes to a better understanding of microplastic pollution in the compounds of higher education institutions, which could be positively linked to the human activities within those institutions. Full text

Open Access
Assessing the Impact of Pharmaceutical Contamination in Malaysian Groundwater: Risks, Modelling, and Remediation Strategies
by Michael Lie, Rubiyatno, Faisal Saud Binhudayb, Nguyen Thi Thanh Thao, Risky Ayu Kristanti

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 51 views
Pharmaceuticals in Malaysia’s groundwater are a growing concern as they can potentially affect the environment and human health negatively. Pharmaceuticals are found in abundance in groundwater from sources such as septic tanks, leachates from landfills, wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical-related industries, medical institutions, wastewater treatment plants, and households, agriculture runoff and leakage of effluent wastes in Malaysia. Pharmaceutical contaminant usually travels through advection and dispersion from waterways or soil into the groundwater. The mathematical model of the advection-dispersion equation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are analysed for the prediction of movement and concentration of pharmaceuticals.  Furthermore, the evolution of pharmaceuticals in the environment, living organisms and human health is assessed. Pharmaceuticals have found their way into the food chain and exhibit toxicity and hazard to aquatic ecosystems. However, the toxicity of pharmaceuticals to humans is still not yet much to be researched although strong evidence of possible negative consequences. Moreover, remediation technologies such as activated carbon adsorption, activated sludge, anaerobic treatment and advanced oxidation process are discussed for the mitigation of pharmaceuticals contamination. Full text

Open Access
Microplastics in and Near Landlocked Countries of Central and East Asia: A Review of Occurrence and Characteristics
by Kuok Ho Daniel Tang

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 505 views
The detection of microplastics in the water and sediment samples of the landlocked countries in central and eastern Asia means the relatively less populous countries are not spared from microplastic pollution. It is crucial to understand the severity of microplastic pollution in and near those countries since there are significantly fewer regional studies on microplastic pollution conducted for those countries. This review aims to systematically present the occurrence and characteristics of microplastics in and near the landlocked countries to shed light on the severity of microplastic pollution therein. It analyzed the contents of more than 38 papers to achieve its aim. Of all the landlocked countries, Mongolia has the most studies on microplastic pollution, while there are none for Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. For dried sediment samples, the microplastic contents ranged from 862 items/kg in the Tuul River of Mongolia to 15–46 items/kg on the Iranian side of the Caspian Sea near Turkmenistan. Lake Hovsgol in Mongolia recorded a microplastic density of 20,264 items/km2, whereas the Selenga River system had a mean microplastic density of 120.14 items/km2. Microplastics concentrations in the Caspian Sea varied, with areas near the southwest of Turkmenistan having microplastics concentrations ranging from 0.000246 items/l to 0.710 items/l. The microplastics levels in the countries are comparable to those of other regions in the world, indicating the impacts of human activities on microplastic pollution. Some microplastics might also have entered the countries through long-range transport by air and water from areas of higher human activity. Full text

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