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Tropical Aquatic and Soil Pollution

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. , Vol. 1 Iss. 2 (2021) – 5 articles

			View Vol. 1 Iss. 2 (2021)
Published: 1 December 2021
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A Study Case on Estimation of Soil Loss and Sediment Yield in Curtin University, Malaysia
by Hui Yee Ngieng, Leong Kong Yong, Striprabu Strimari

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 2021, 1(2), pp 62-73;

Because of human activities, soil erosion has been one of the most concerning issues in Malaysia in the past decades. This study aimed to estimate the amount of soil loss and sediment yield at Curtin University, Malaysia by using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE), respectively. The parameters of RUSLE include rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope length factor (L), slope steepness factor (S), cover-management factor (C) and support practice factor (P). The rainfall data (10 years) from the Sarawak Meteorological Department was used to determine the R-factor. The K-factor was determined by sieve analysis, hydrometer analysis, the Standard Proctor Test (SPT), and organic content testing. The L-and S-factors were performed by measuring on site and using Google Earth. The C-and P-factors were based on the ground surface cover condition (bare soil in this study). In the MUSLE, the runoff factor comprises V and Qp, while the other parameters are the same as in the RUSLE. The runoff depth, V, is equivalent to the rainfall intensity. Rainfall intensities were recorded by using a rain gauge. The highest rainfall intensity was used for runoff depth. The Rational method has been utilized to calculate Qp. The amount of soil loss estimated was 119.97 tons/ha/year and the sediment yield amount estimated was 0.76 ton/storm event in Curtin University, Malaysia. Full text

Level and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Miri River, Malaysia
by Amit Kumar Maharjan, Dick Rong En Wong, Rubiyatno Rubiyatno

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 2021, 1(2), pp 74-86;

The heavy metals pollution in the water resource has become a serious and hazardous environmental problem all over the world because of non-biodegradability, emanating from multiple sources, easy accumulation, and biological toxicity. This research was carried out to study the level and distribution of heavy metals at different sampling locations (upstream, midstream, and downstream), at different depths (0.5 m and 1.5 m from surface water level), and during low tide and high tide conditions in the Miri River of Miri City in Malaysia. The river water samples were collected and analyzed for Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Concentration of Ca was found to be the highest in the Miri River, followed by Mg and Fe, and with traces of Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Increment in the concentration of heavy metals, such as Cu, Mg, and Ni, was observed while flowing from upstream to downstream of the Miri River. Concentration of heavy metals, such as Ca, Mg, Cu, and Zn, were clearly lower at 1.5 m depth than at 0.5 m depth. High tides in the river decreased the concentration of heavy metals, such as Ca, Cu, Mn, and Ni, than during low tides. From this research, it gets clear that using the Miri River water for domestic and recreational purposes, washing, and fishing is detrimental to human health and the environment. Full text

Water Quality Assessment of Roof-collected Rainwater in Miri, Malaysia
by Joel Joseph Hughes Frichot, Rubiyatno, Gaurav Talukdar

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 2021, 1(2), pp 87-97;

Rainwater harvesting systems are becoming more acceptable as an alternative method to harvest water sources for both potable and non-potable uses. While the method has proven to be very simplistic and cost-effective, the collected rainwater source remains untreated and can pose serious health concerns if not used properly. This study focused on the physicochemical and heavy metal parameters of roof-collected rainwater in Miri, Sarawak. Individual sites were chosen throughout Miri, Sarawak for representative samples. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy was used for the analysis of heavy metal concentrations. Heavy metal analysis included manganese, zinc, iron, copper, and cadmium. pH, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate, and fluoride were among the physicochemical parameters examined. Seasonal comparison indicated the majority of the higher concentration levels occurred during the wet season. The overall mean concentration for the physicochemical parameters indicated CLASS I usage, with the exception of BOD5, which was CLASS III usage. The overall mean concentration for metals analyzed indicated a CLASS I usage threshold with the exception of copper, which had concentrations well above the 0.02mg/L threshold for all sites. Thus, copper was considered one of the major contaminants for this study. Moreover, the types of storage tanks also showcased key findings. Open top storage tanks are more vulnerable to contamination than closed storage tanks. Metal storage tanks offer higher rainwater temperatures in comparison to other types of storage tanks. Full text

Phenol Removal from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption Technique Using Coconut Shell Activated Carbon
by Zhi Hoong Ho, Liyana Amalina Adnan

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 2021, 1(2), pp 98-107;

Adsorption is one of the simplest techniques with low economic requirements. Coconut shell is an abundant agriculture waste which is inexpensive and easy to be obtained in Malaysia. This agriculture waste was transformed to activated carbon via 600°C of carbonization and zinc chloride activation. The ability of coconut shell-based activated carbon to remove phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions was evaluated. From the experiment, the equilibrium time for the adsorption of phenol onto coconut shell-based activated carbon is 120 minutes. The effect of the operating parameters, such as contact time, initial concentration, agitation speed, adsorbent dosage, and pH of the phenolic solution were studied. Adsorption kinetics models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich equation) and isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) were used to fit the experimental data.Pseudo-second-order was found to be the best fitted kinetics model to describe the adsorption of phenol on coconut shell-based activated carbon. While the equilibrium experiment data was well expressed by the Temkin isotherm model, The maximum adsorption capacity is determined as 19.02 mg/g, which is comparatively lower than the previous research. Meanwhile, 92% of removal efficiency was achieved by a dosage of 10g/L. Meanwhile, the adsorption of phenol by activated carbon was more favorable under acidic conditions. The favourable isotherm behavior was indicated by the dimensionless separation factor. The functional group and compound class of activated carbon before and after the experiment were determined through the analysis of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Full text

Decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R and Procion Red MX-5B by Trichoderma Species
by Vanessa Jane Zainip, Liyana Amalina Adnan, Mohamed Soliman Elshikh

Trop. Aqua. Soil Pollut. 2021, 1(2), pp 108-117;

Industrial wastewater including dye waste disposal, has been released in a massive amount and is difficult to degrade, especially synthetic dyes. In this study, 10 different types of fungi were isolated from a decayed wood in UTM forest and were labelled as S1-S10. Two dyes were chosen for this study, which were Procion Red MX-5B (PRMX5B) and Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R (RBV5R). These fungi were screened for their ability to decolor both dyes and further tested for their ability to decolor the dyes in liquid medium under several parameters; carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH value, temperature, and agitation. S1 decolorized PRMX5B efficiently with the addition of glucose (45%), ammonium nitrate (61%), pH 3 (69%), temperature 37°C (49%), and agitation 100 rpm (69%), whereas S2 decolorized efficiently with the addition of glucose (60%), ammonium nitrate (49%), pH 3 (70%), temperature 37°C (46%), and agitation 100 rpm (74%). S1 demonstrated efficient decolorization of RBV5R with the addition of glucose (80%), ammonium nitrate (62%), pH 3, temperature 37°C (75%), and agitation 100 rpm (90%), whereas S2 demonstrated efficient decolorization with the addition of glucose (52%), ammonium nitrate (67%), pH 3, temperature 37°C (75%), and agitation 100 rpm (71%).The percentage of decolorization of dyes was measured by using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. These fungi were then identified using the 18sr RNA method. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and a polygenetic tree, fungi S1 belong to Trichoderma koningiopsis and fungi S2 belong to Trichoderma atroviride. Full text