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Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Microbes: A Review

by Rubiyatno 1 , Aulia Maulana 2 , Jovale Vincent Tongco 3 , Arma Yulisa 4 , Sang Hyeok Park 4 , Md Abu Hanifa Jannat 4 , Rega Permana 5 , 6 , , Ocean Thakali 7 , Michael Lie 8 , Aouatif Fahssi 9 , Ouahiba Aziez 10 , Camilo Bastidas 11
1 Graduate Faculty of Interdisciplinary Research, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
2 Integrated Graduate School of Medicine, Engineering, and Agricultural Sciences, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
3 Department of Forest, Rangeland and Fire Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA
4 Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), 77 Cheongam-ro, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 37673, Republic of Korea
5 School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
6 Universitas Padjadjaran, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Raya Bandung Sumedang Street KM. 21 Jatinangor, Sumedang, 45363, Indonesia
7 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa K1N 6N5, Canada
8 Enviro Solutions, Kuala Lumpur, 59200 Malaysia
9 Faculty of Science, Ibnou Zohr University. P 8106, Agadir 80000, Morocco
10 University of Boumerdès Faculty of Technology Frantz fanon City-Boumerdes, Algeria
11 Faculty of Science, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander, Spain

SUBMITTED: 19 January 2024; ACCEPTED: 13 March 2024; PUBLISHED: 17 March 2024

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Chlorpyrifos (CP) is a widely used organophosphate pesticide known for its recalcitrant nature, raising concerns about potential ecological and health impacts due to its toxicity. Many plants and animals are contaminated with this pesticide. Microbial biodegradation offers an environmentally friendly and effective method to remove CP from the environment and mitigate its impacts, especially given its low cost, particularly when bioremediation is conducted on-site. Different types of microbial species have been found to function under various environmental conditions, with some, like Pseudomonas nitroreducens PS-2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCIM 2074), showing promising results with degradation rates of up to 100%. However, challenges exist, such as partial degradation caused by the presence of metabolites, and the recalcitrant nature of CP, which can impede microbes' ability to effectively degrade its hydrocarbon ring. Overall, a combination of approaches, such as microbial and algal methods, or the discovery of new microbial strains, can help overcome these challenges and further enhance the long-term viability of this technique.

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Keywords: Chlorpyrifos; biodegradation; microbes; pesticide; bioremediation

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License
© 2024 Rubiyatno, Aulia Maulana, Jovale Vincent Tongco, Arma Yulisa, Sang Hyeok Park , Md Abu Hanifa Jannat, Rega Permana, Ocean Thakali, Michael Lie, Aouatif Fahssi, Ouahiba Aziez, Camilo Bastidas. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Rubiyatno, Maulana, A. ., Tongco, J. V. ., Yulisa, A. ., Park , S. H., Jannat, M. A. H. ., Permana, R. ., Thakali, O. ., Lie, M., Fahssi, A. ., Aziez, O. ., & Bastidas, C. . (2024). Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Microbes: A Review. Tropical Aquatic and Soil Pollution, 4(1), 10–26.
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