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Industrial and Domestic Waste Management

Ind. Domest. Waste Manag. , Vol. 2 Iss. 1 (2022) – 5 articles

			View Vol. 2 Iss. 1 (2022)
Published: 1 June 2022
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Tolerance of earthworms in soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
by Rubiyatno, Zee Chuang Teh, Diah Velentina Lestari, Arma Yulisa, Muthah Musa, Tse-Wei Chen, Noura M. Darwish, Bandar M. AlMunqedhi, Tony Hadibarata

Ind. Domest. Waste Manag. 2022, 2(1), pp 9-16; - 5 April 2022

Pyrene is a very resistant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with four benzene rings that survives in the environment. This study was aimed at investigating the tolerance of earthworms in soil contaminated with pyrene. The studies were performed by employing earthworms gathered from shady regions adjacent to sewage ponds as pyrene degraders to eradicate pyrene from the soil. Numerous factors affecting pyrene degradation efficiency were explored, including the effects of contaminant concentration, earthworm and soil ration, and soil condition. The highest pyrene removal (31.2%) was shown by earthworms in the condition of soil mixed with cow dung. Pyrene decomposition was inhibited during soil sterilization due to the absence of soil microorganisms and indigenous pyrene-degrading bacteria. Nonetheless, earthworms are suitable for use as pyrene degraders in contaminated soil. Full text

Effect of Substrate-to-Inoculum Ratio and Temperatures During the Start-up of Anaerobic Digestion of Fish Waste
by Arma Yulisa, Chayanee Chairattanawat, Sang Hyeok Park, Md Abu Hanifa Jannat, Seokhwan Hwang

Ind. Domest. Waste Manag. 2022, 2(1), pp 17-29; - 8 May 2022

The high protein and lipid content of fish waste makes mono-digestion a difficult bioprocess for an anaerobic digestion (AD) system. On the other hand, the massive increase in fish and seafood consumption worldwide has led to an inevitable fish waste mono-AD. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of food-to-microorganisms (F/M) ratios and temperatures during the start-up period of fish waste mono-digestion. F/M ratios of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 on a g-COD/g-VSS basis were operated at 35°C and 45°C, representing mesophilic and hyper-mesophilic conditions, respectively. The increase in F/M ratio improved the maximum methane (CH4) production rate at both temperatures. However, F/M ratio of 0.5 generated the highest CH4 yield in mesophilic and hyper-mesophilic conditions (0.23±0.00 L-CH4/g-CODinput). Further increase in F/M ratio decreased CH4 yield up to 21.74% and 39.13% when the reactors were operated at 35°C and 45°C, respectively. When reactors were supplied with FM ratios of 0.5, 1, and 2, hyper-mesophilic temperature improved methanogenesis by up to 2.61% and shortened the lag phase by 22.88%. Meanwhile, F/M ratio 3 at 45°C decreased cumulative CH4 production by up to 26.57% and prolonged the lag phase by 10.19%. The result of this study is beneficial to managing the input substrate of a batch-AD system that treats fish waste as a sole substrate. Full text

Removal of Cresol Red by Adsorption Using Wastepaper
by Mohamad Salman, Muslum Demir, Kuok Ho Daniel Tang, Linh Thi Thuy Cao, Seng Bunrith, Tse-Wei Chen, Noura M. Darwish, Bandar M. AlMunqedhi, Tony Hadibarata

Ind. Domest. Waste Manag. 2022, 2(1), pp 1-8; - 5 April 2022

The utilization of less expensive and more effective adsorbents derived from a variety of basic materials has been investigated. The research aimed to investigate the feasibility of employing waste paper as the adsorbent to remove the cresol red (CR) dye from wastewater through adsorption mechanism. Langmuir, Jovanovic, and Freundlich model were observed for isotherms models, while pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were examined for kinetic models. The results indicated that increasing the adsorbent dose and contact time gave no significant effect to adsorption capacity while adsorption capacity increased with the increasing of pH until it reached a maximum at pH 8, and raising the starting dye concentration leads in a significant increase in adsorption capacity (16.7 mg/g). When the experimental adsorption isotherms and kinetic were fitted using the Freundlich models and pseudo-second-order model, it was discovered that those models were more accurately represented by the data, as indicated by a high correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.974 and 0.963. Full text

Adsorption of Phosphorus Using Cockle Shell Waste
by Natasya Binti Mohd Zain, Nurul Jannah Md Salleh, Nurul Fatihah Hisamuddin, Shazana Hashim, Noorul Hudai Abdullah

Ind. Domest. Waste Manag. 2022, 2(1), pp 30-38; - 24 May 2022

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for aquatic plants and animals. The acceptable range for phosphorus in water is from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/L. However, excessive phosphorus use can result in biodiversity loss and pollution and endanger aquatic creatures and human health because the pollutants are non-biodegradable and thus accumulate over time. This work investigated the removal of phosphorus from synthetic wastewater containing KH2PO4 via adsorption using calcined cockle shell waste. Phosphorus adsorption by calcined cockle shell waste of less than 75 μm particle size was investigated. Five different adsorbent dosages (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 g) mixed with 10 ppm phosphate were adsorbed for 60 min. The presence of calcined cockle shell waste was determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a DR6000 UV–visible spectrophotometer. In brief, the highest dosage of 1.0 g removed 94.96% phosphorus from the synthetic wastewater, while the longest treatment time resulted in 95.74% phosphorus adsorption. The proposed method is low-cost and convenient. Full text

Study of Household Waste Management and Recycling Awareness Between Residential Areas in Kuala Nerang, Kedah, Malaysia
by Husna Abdul Halim, Mohamed Zuhaili Mohamed Najib, Muzaffar Zainal Abideen, Hazlami Fikri Basri, Khalida Muda

Ind. Domest. Waste Manag. 2022, 2(1), pp 39-45; - 24 May 2022

This paper presents a study on household waste management and recycling awareness. Residential areas are the major sources of solid waste as that is where people live. The waste that is usually disposed of from residential areas includes food waste, plastic waste, paper, glass, tin, and others. The increasing trend in waste generated from homes has become a major concern. This study aimed to assess household waste management and recycling awareness in two residential areas located in Padang Terap District, Kuala Nerang, Kedah, Malaysia. Recently, Padang Terap district showed an increase in waste generated compared to another district, Kedah. An open-ended questionnaire was distributed to approximately 32 respondents, and an interview was conducted to study household waste management and recycling awareness in two residential areas—Taman Jati and Taman Pelangi. The research shows that household waste management to segregate the waste remains a problem, despite most respondents being aware of this issue through different media. Furthermore, the lack of household waste management and recycling programs and facilities by the local authorities caused residents to be reluctant to practice these activities. Full text