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Civil and Sustainable Urban Engineering

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. , Vol. 3 Iss. 1 (2023) – 8 articles

			View Vol. 3 Iss. 1 (2023)
Published: 2 June 2023
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Assessment of Maintenance Management Practice in Government-owned Tertiary Institution
by Lucky Azubike Osuya, Olumide Afolarin Adenuga, Olalekan Shamsideen Oshodi

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2023, 3(1), pp 1-15;

The state of utilities and infrastructure within an academic institution plays a vital role in learning and the development of human capital. Hence, this study seeks to examine the management practices used in maintaining facilities in a government-owned tertiary institution and then examine the conditions of critical facilities and their related services in the institution. To achieve the study's goal, a questionnaire survey approach was used to collect information about users' and property managers' perceptions of maintenance management practices. The results revealed the existence of a maintenance policy covering critical systems and services. The discovery also implies that maintenance tasks are generated and planned in response to inspections and user requests. Respondents' perceptions of the state of facilities and utilities indicate that they are in good condition. While literature shows school infrastructure issues remain an ongoing concern, the majority of respondents affirm security and electricity as the most important critical infrastructure and services in the institution, amongst others. The most important limitation of the current study lies in the fact that the findings may not be generalizable to other tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Hence, more research needs to be done in order to gather more information about maintenance management practices in public universities and other educational institutions to improve critical facilities and services to enhance learning outcomes. Full text

Analysis of Sustainable Energy Metrics in Douala’s Road Transportation Sector, Cameroon
by Fontaine Dubois Bissai, Bienvenu Gaël Fouda Fouda Mbanga, Cyrille Adiang Mezoue, Severin Nguiya

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2023, 3(1), pp 95-111;

In this study, Douala, Cameroon was used as a case study to analyze the characteristics of sustainable energy for road transport from 2010 to 2019. Douala, being the national capital and entry point to Central Africa, served as a major hub for the movement of people and goods. However, the road transport sector was plagued by a number of problems, including traffic congestion, the use of fossil fuels, air pollution, and global warming associated with road traffic. The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of indicators that would allow monitoring the evolution of trends in the interactions between the energy component and sustainable development. The DPSIR (Driving Force, Pressure, State, Impact, and Response) model was used to select a set of indicators. According to the results, the energy intensity of the fuel used for transport decreased from 9.93 to 15.9 toe/M€. This increase in energy intensity reflected the energy-intensive nature of the road industry. Additionally, from 2010 to 2019, the energy efficiency of road transport vehicles in the city of Douala fluctuated between 20 and 22%. This indicates a significant potential for improving energy efficiency. Therefore, decision-makers need to implement sustainable transport planning to address these issues. Full text

Evaluating the Clogging Phenomenon in Pervious Concrete from January 2015 to December 2022
by Ehsan Teymouri, Kwong Soon Wong, Masoud Rouhbakhsh, Mahdi Pahlevani, Mehdi Forouzan

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2023, 3(1), pp 70-80;

This study investigated the effects of clogging in Pervious Concrete (PC) from January 2015 to December 2022. Three different PC mixtures were used, which included coarse aggregate (4.75-9.5 mm), fine aggregate (0-20% weight of coarse aggregate), cement (340 kg/m3), and w/c ratio of 0.35. The samples were tested for compressive strength, permeability, and porosity. The best PC mixture containing 10% fine aggregate was selected for monitoring clogging over time. This mixture had a compressive strength of 24.7 MPa, permeability of 1.19 mm/s, and void content of 13.96%. A large-scale prototype of PC10 (10% of fine aggregate) measuring 3.5 m in length, 1.7 m in width, and 0.20 m in depth was constructed in Mashhad City, Iran. The in-place infiltration rate was measured on a monthly basis as the PC experienced different rainfall levels. The results showed that due to clogging, the infiltration rate was reduced by an average of 10% for the first four years of the experiments. This was followed by a substantial reduction of 20% in 2019 and 16.75% in 2020. Due to a high level of clogging, the infiltration rate was reduced by 5.02% and 2.23% in 2021 and 2022, respectively. However, the system still has the capacity to infiltrate at 1.14 mm/s. Although no maintenance was performed on the PC system, its efficiency and lifespan were substantially reduced. Nonetheless, the system can still be considered as an effective solution for stormwater management. Full text

Bitumen Stabilised Open Graded Base Materials
by Cheah Nelson, Jayakumar Muthuramalingam, Saad Hamad Elhassan, Nicholas Tam

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2023, 3(1), pp 40-50;

Roads play a crucial role in fostering economic growth and providing social advantages in every nation. However, over time, road infrastructure can become outdated. According to studies conducted by World Highways, a road may seem to be in good condition on the surface while hiding a severe issue beneath. As a result, periodic maintenance, repairs, or modernization may be necessary for road structures. The primary purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of permeability on road base materials by removing particles and restoring strength through stabilization with bitumen. Optimum grade 60/70 bitumen was used in compliance with Malaysia JKR specifications to create a realistic case scenario. The formulation excluded open-graded road base material with particles smaller than 1.18 mm or 2.0 mm, and bitumen stabilization levels of 0%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% were implemented to reduce the decrease in mechanical strength. The mechanical strength was determined using the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, while a Constant Head Method Permeability test was conducted to identify the optimal design mix with the maximum achievable permeability coefficient. The results showed that bitumen stabilization increased the mechanical strength of the road base material, with the highest result compensating for the drop by 8.7%. With open-graded road base material, the permeability can be increased by up to 17.2%. Therefore, open-graded road foundation material with bitumen as a binder for stabilization can be used in the construction of pavements in Malaysia, an area with relatively high rainfall intensity. Full text

Durability Performance of Geopolymer Concrete of Various Strength
by Clarence Meripa Meechang, Jayakumar Muthuramalingam, Nicholas Tam

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2023, 3(1), pp 16-24;

Geopolymers, primarily composed of fly ash, have proved an excellent substitute for ordinary portland cement (OPC) in terms of sustainability and productivity. In order to determine the geopolymer concrete's (GPC) resistance to chemical assaults and water permeability, it is necessary to obtain geopolymer concrete (GPC) of varying strengths after normal curing. The objectives of the research was to test the durability performances of the GPC of various strength under normal curing and investigating the optimum strength based on durability testing of the GPC. For this research, different type of cement-to-fly ash ratio was used for various strength data. The appropriate mixture was conducted by using the trial mix method in order to obtain better accuracy of the results data during the mixing design process. To satisfy the varied strength designs, a small proportion of OPC is added to the GPC mixture as part of the mix design. After 28 days of curing, this durability testing is undertaken after the concrete has reached its maximum strength. The compressive strength test and weights were performed and compared to the GPC mix design at 60 °C after heat curing. The 8% OPC replacement has greater resistance to sulfate attack, saltwater exposure, and water permeability compared to the 6% and 7% OPC alternatives. Consequently, the experiment reveals that the GPC's durability and strength increase as the percentage of OPC increases. Full text

Development of Cement Stabilised Compressed Blocks Using Coal Bottom Ash: Influence of the Grain Size on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Blocks
by Jacques Remy Minane, Abdou Lawane, Jeremie Madjadoumbaye, Raffaele Vinai, Brice Zagré

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2023, 3(1), pp 81-94;

This study investigated the physical and mechanical properties of cement-stabilized compressed blocks manufactured with coal bottom ash sourced from a power plant in Niger. Three different grain sizes were used for the production of compressed blocks with a hand-operated press. Thermal, hydric, mechanical, and fire resistance properties were assessed on the samples. It was found that the use of finer bottom ash resulted in lighter blocks with a density of about 1.02 mg/m3 and thermal conductivity in the range of 0.27 – 0.41 W/m·K. The size of the bottom ash used for the production of blocks did not significantly affect the value of mechanical strength. The exposure of blocks to temperatures of 200°C and 400°C did not reduce the strength of the samples. Neat bottom ash blocks can offer better thermal properties than typical building materials and provide acceptable mechanical strength. Full text

Structural Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Embedded Polystyrene Spheres
by Jen Hua Ling, Ji Wei Lau, Yong Tat Lim

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2023, 3(1), pp 25-39;

The beam is a structural element in a reinforced concrete structure. However, its weight places additional strain on the columns and foundations.Polystyrene spheres can be used to replace concrete in a beam to reduce its weight. However, this can affect the beam’s structural performance. This study investigated the behavior of beams with embedded polystyrene spheres under loads. The purpose was to determine the feasibility of this technique. Six beam specimens, including a control specimen, were tested under the four-point load setup. The polystyrene spheres’ diameter ranged from 50 mm to 75 mm. The spacing between the spheres varied from 10 mm to 30 mm. By replacing 8.7% of the concrete, the beam's strength increased by 8% per unit of concrete. The polystyrene spheres marginally altered the load capacity but reduced the stiffness, uncracked load, and ductility. The load capacity decreased by 2.6% as the polystyrene sphere’s diameter increased from 50 mm to 10 mm. The strength increased by 0.6% as the spacing increased from 10 mm to 30 mm. For satisfactory performance, the polystyrene spheres with a diameter of 0.57 times the beam’s width may be spaced at 1.2 times the concrete cover. Full text

Implementation of Green Materials in Construction Management System in Malaysia
by Jia Hao Chong, Madelyn Shiu Liu, Erika Hernandes, Mihaela Albescu

Civil Sustain. Urban Eng. 2023, 3(1), pp 51-69;

Construction industry plays an important role in social, economic and environmental developments. However, the unstainable development in the industry has led to environmental issues. Construction waste is one of the biggest problems in the construction industry. In Malaysia, construction waste constitutes a large portion of solid waste every year. Most of the construction waste ends up in landfill without proper treatment. The constriction waste can further lead to other environmental issues. In addition, construction activities have also led to environmental issues such as water pollution, air pollution and noise pollution in the country. Besides, utilization of conventional construction materials in the country also leads to unstainable development in the industry. Conventional concrete is the most used construction material and also the most generated construction waste in a construction project. The production of conventional concrete emits a huge amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) (due to the use of cement), which accounts for 8% to 10% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions every year. Thus, environmental management practices and utilization of green materials can be the keys to achieve sustainable development in the Malaysian construction industry. Full text