Skip to main content
Search for Articles:
Civil and Sustainable Urban Engineering

Open Access Article

Durability Performance of Geopolymer Concrete of Various Strength

by Clarence Meripa Meechang 1 , Jayakumar Muthuramalingam 1 , Nicholas Tam 2
1 Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Curtin University Malaysia, CDT250, Miri 98009, Malaysia
2 Faculty of of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787, Warsaw, Poland.

SUBMITTED: 02 December 2022; ACCEPTED: 03 February 2023; PUBLISHED: 7 February 2023

Submission to final decision takes 62 days.

Get rights and content
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License



Geopolymers, primarily composed of fly ash, have proved an excellent substitute for ordinary portland cement (OPC) in terms of sustainability and productivity. In order to determine the geopolymer concrete's (GPC) resistance to chemical assaults and water permeability, it is necessary to obtain geopolymer concrete (GPC) of varying strengths after normal curing. The objectives of the research was to test the durability performances of the GPC of various strength under normal curing and investigating the optimum strength based on durability testing of the GPC. For this research, different type of cement-to-fly ash ratio was used for various strength data. The appropriate mixture was conducted by using the trial mix method in order to obtain better accuracy of the results data during the mixing design process. To satisfy the varied strength designs, a small proportion of OPC is added to the GPC mixture as part of the mix design. After 28 days of curing, this durability testing is undertaken after the concrete has reached its maximum strength. The compressive strength test and weights were performed and compared to the GPC mix design at 60 °C after heat curing. The 8% OPC replacement has greater resistance to sulfate attack, saltwater exposure, and water permeability compared to the 6% and 7% OPC alternatives. Consequently, the experiment reveals that the GPC's durability and strength increase as the percentage of OPC increases.

Keywords: Durability performance, fly ash, various strength, geopolymer concrete, ordinary portland cement

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License
© 2023 Clarence Meripa Meechang, Jayakumar Muthuramalingam, Nicholas Tam. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share and Cite

ACS Styles
APA Styles
Meechang, C. M. ., Muthuramalingam, J. ., & Tam, N. (2023). Durability Performance of Geopolymer Concrete of Various Strength . Civil and Sustainable Urban Engineering, 3(1), 16–24.
MLA Styles
Find Other Styles

Sanjuán, M.Á.; Andrade, C.; Mora, P.; Zaragoza, A. (2020). Carbon Dioxide Uptake by Cement-Based Materials: A Spanish Case Study. Applied Science, 10, 339.

Udara Willhelm Abeydeera, L.H.; Wadu Mesthrige, J.; Samarasinghalage, T.I. (2019). Global Research on Carbon Emissions: A Scientometric Review. Sustainability, 11, 3972.

Abiodun, Y.O.; Olanrewaju, O.A.; Gbenebor, O.P.; Ochulor, E.F.; Obasa, D.V.; Adeosun, S.O. (2022). Cutting Cement Industry CO2 Emissions through Metakaolin Use in Construction. Atmosphere, 13, 1494.

Voldsund, M.; Gardarsdottir, S.O.; De Lena, E.; Pérez-Calvo, J.-F.; Jamali, A.; Berstad, D.; Fu, C.; Romano, M.; Roussanaly, S.; Anantharaman, R.; Hoppe, H.; Sutter, D.; Mazzotti, M.; Gazzani, M.; Cinti, G.; Jordal, K. (2019). Comparison of Technologies for CO2 Capture from Cement Production—Part 1: Technical Evaluation. Energies, 12, 559.

Latawiec, R.; Woyciechowski, P.; Kowalski, K.J. (2018). Sustainable Concrete Performance—CO2-Emission. Environments, 5, 27.

Zailani, W.W.A.; Abdullah, M.M.A.B.; Arshad, M.F.; Razak, R.A.; Tahir, M.F.M.; Zainol, R.R.M.A.; Nabialek, M.; Sandu, A.V.; Wysłocki, J.J.; Błoch, K. (2021). Characterisation at the Bonding Zone between Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Repair Materials (GRM) and Ordinary Portland Cement Concrete (OPCC). Materials, 14, 56.

Bocullo, V.; Vaičiukynienė, D.; Gečys, R.; Daukšys, M. (2020). Effect of Ordinary Portland Cement and Water Glass on the Properties of Alkali Activated Fly Ash Concrete. Minerals, 10, 40.

Maglad, A.M.; Zaid, O.; Arbili, M.M.; Ascensão, G.; Șerbănoiu, A.A.; Grădinaru, C.M.; García, R.M.; Qaidi, S.M.A.; Althoey, F.; de Prado-Gil, J. (2022). A Study on the Properties of Geopolymer Concrete Modified with Nano Graphene Oxide. Buildings, 12, 1066.

Verma, M.; Dev, N.; Rahman, I.; Nigam, M.; Ahmed, M.; Mallick, J. (2022). Geopolymer Concrete: A Material for Sustainable Development in Indian Construction Industries. Crystals, 12, 514.

Wong, L.S. (2022). Durability Performance of Geopolymer Concrete: A Review. Polymers, 14, 868.

Ahmed, H.U.; Mohammed, A.A.; Rafiq, S.; Mohammed, A.S.; Mosavi, A.; Sor, N.H.; Qaidi, S.M.A. (2021). Compressive Strength of Sustainable Geopolymer Concrete Composites: A State-of-the-Art Review. Sustainability, 13, 13502.

Nikoloutsopoulos, N.; Sotiropoulou, A.; Kakali, G.; Tsivilis, S. (2021). Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete Compared to Conventional Concrete. Buildings, 11, 178.

Dao, D.V.; Trinh, S.H.; Ly, H.-B.; Pham, B.T. (2019). Prediction of Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Concrete Using Entirely Steel Slag Aggregates: Novel Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Approaches. Applied Science, 9, 1113.

Luhar, S.; Luhar, I.; Nicolaides, D.; Gupta, R. (2021). Durability Performance Evaluation of Rubberized Geopolymer Concrete. Sustainability, 13, 5969.

Sherwani, A.F.H.; Younis, K.H.; Arndt, R.W. Fresh, (2022). Mechanical, and Durability Behavior of Fly Ash-Based Self Compacted Geopolymer Concrete: Effect of Slag Content and Various Curing Conditions. Polymers, 14, 3209.

Haufe, J.; Vollpracht, A.; Matschei, T. (2021). Development of a Sulfate Resistance Performance Test for Concrete by Tensile Strength Measurements: Determination of Test Conditions. Crystals, 11, 1001.

Haufe, J.; Vollpracht, A.; Matschei, T. (2021). Performance Test for Sulfate Resistance of Concrete by Tensile Strength Measurements: Determination of Test Criteria. Crystals, 11, 1018.

Kewalramani, M.; Khartabil, A. (2021). Porosity Evaluation of Concrete Containing Supplementary Cementitious Materials for Durability Assessment through Volume of Permeable Voids and Water Immersion Conditions. Buildings, 11, 378.

Ibrahim, W.M.W.; Abdullah, M.M.A.B.; Ahmad, R.; Sandu, A.V.; Vizureanu, P.; Benjeddou, O.; Rahim, A.; Ibrahim, M.; Sauffi, A.S. (2022). Chemical Distributions of Different Sodium Hydroxide Molarities on Fly Ash/Dolomite-Based Geopolymer. Materials, 15, 6163.

Abdullah, A.; Hussin, K.; Abdullah, M.M.A.B.; Yahya, Z.; Sochacki, W.; Razak, R.A.; Błoch, K.; Fansuri, H. (2021). The Effects of Various Concentrations of NaOH on the Inter-Particle Gelation of a Fly Ash Geopolymer Aggregate. Materials, 14, 1111.

Dong, P.S.; Tuan, N.V.; Thanh, L.T.; Thang, N.C.; Cu, V.H.; Mun, J.-H. Compressive Strength (2020). Development of High-Volume Fly Ash Ultra-High-Performance Concrete under Heat Curing Condition with Time. Applied Science, 10, 7107.

Choi, H.; Koh, T.; Choi, H.; Hama, Y. (2019). Performance Evaluation of Precast Concrete Using Microwave Heating Form. Materials, 12, 1113.

Mohamed, O. (2018). Durability and Compressive Strength of High Cement Replacement Ratio Self-Consolidating Concrete. Buildings, 8, 153.

Horňáková, M.; Lehner, P.; Le, T.D.; Konečný, P.; Katzer, J. (2020). Durability Characteristics of Concrete Mixture Based on Red Ceramic Waste Aggregate. Sustainability, 12, 8890.

Salih, M.A.; Ahmed, S.K.; Alsafi, S.; Abullah, M.M.A.B.; Jaya, R.P.; Abd Rahim, S.Z.; Aziz, I.H.; Thanaya, I.N.A. (2022). Strength and Durability of Sustainable Self-Consolidating Concrete with High Levels of Supplementary Cementitious Materials. Materials, 15, 7991.

Falaciński, P.; Machowska, A.; Szarek, Ł. (2021). The Impact of Chloride and Sulphate Aggressiveness on the Microstructure and Phase Composition of Fly Ash-Slag Mortar. Materials, 14, 4430.

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal statistics, click here.