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Sustainable Technology in Developed Countries: Waste Municipal Management

by Carol Emilly Hoareau 1 , Noraziah Ahmad 2 , Maria Nuid 3 , Rubiyatno 4 , Dao Nguyen Khoi 5 , 6 , , Risky Ayu Kristanti 7
1 Department of Civil Construction Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Science, Curtin University, CDT 250, Miri, 98009, Sarawak, Malaysia
2 Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
3 School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor,Malaysia
4 Integrated Graduate School of Medicine, Engineering, and Agricultural Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Japan
5 Faculty of Environment, University of Science, 227 Nguyen Van Cu Street, Dist. 5, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
6 Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc Dist., Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
7 Research Center for Oceanography, National Research and Innovation Agency, Jakarta, 14430, Indonesia

SUBMITTED: 26 November 2021; ACCEPTED: 19 December 2021; PUBLISHED: 20 December 2021

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As more studies were conducted and global events unfold, a greater emphasis is being placed on the importance of preserving the Earth's natural resources and cycles before we face a catastrophic climate crisis. Thus, developed countries are constantly adapting their policies and legislation to promote green development for the sake of sustainable development, which benefits both the environment and the socioeconomic segment. As populations grow and living standards improve, more waste is generated. Appropriate municipal waste management is necessary to avoid harm to the environment, wildlife, and human health. Sustainable municipal solid waste management is even included in the United Nations' (UN) Sustainable Development Goals, which aim to improve the world's environment and economy. The European Union (EU) member states' waste management systems can be considered exemplary. In some countries, landfills have been prohibited, promoting the use of more sustainable technologies such as organic waste incineration, recycling, and composting. However, a divide exists between member countries, with some lagging behind in terms of waste management strategies. Thus, this paper examined the current state of municipal waste in EU member states, followed by a review of the various disposal technologies implemented. The difficulties and environmental concerns that must be overcome are discussed, as are the recommendations and possible future directions.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License
© 2021 Carol Emilly Hoareau, Noraziah Ahmad, Maria Nuid, Rubiyatno, Dao Nguyen Khoi, Risky Ayu Kristanti. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Hoareau, C. E., Ahmad, N., Nuid, M., Rubiyatno, Khoi, D. N., & Kristanti, R. A. (2021). Sustainable Technology in Developed Countries: Waste Municipal Management . Industrial and Domestic Waste Management, 1(1), 48–55.
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